The role of carbon dioxide, wind speed and rainfall in agriculture

As the basic industry of China's national production, agriculture occupies a pivotal position in the entire country's operations. There are many factors that affect agriculture. Factors such as carbon dioxide, rainfall, wind speed, and soil quality all affect agriculture directly and indirectly.

Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide is the main raw material for photosynthesis. Therefore, carbon dioxide is a decisive factor for plant growth. Contents that are too high or too low are not suitable for the healthy growth of the crop. An increase in carbon dioxide concentration can increase the net productivity of many crops because carbon's "fertility" can increase photosynthesis. The size of this effect varies with different crops. Carbon dioxide has an active fertilizing effect on some crops, that is, we say C3 crops. These crops include major grain crops in Europe and Asia, namely wheat and rice. On the other hand, C4 crops like corn, sorghum, sugar cane, and millet have no special reaction to carbon dioxide. Since C3 weeds may respond well to this change, it is possible to suppress the yield of C4 crops. The C4 crop is the main food source for agriculture in tropical Africa and Latin American countries.

Wind direction Wind direction: The direction of the wind, that is, the direction in which the wind blows, is expressed in terms of position or angle. In the weather forecast, we often heard such words: Tonight, tomorrow, southerly wind, 4-5. This southerly wind is the wind direction, and 4-5 is the wind speed. The word "bias" means that the swinging of the azimuth cannot be determined. The north wind that is commonly referred to is the wind blowing from the north, and the south wind is the wind blowing from the south. Wind speed is divided into 12 levels in the academic community: windless, soft wind, light wind, breeze, gentle wind, strong wind, strong wind, blast, strong wind, gale force, gusty wind, storm, and hurricane. In general, the impact of wind speed and direction on crops is not particularly large, but we can't ignore its impact on crop plants. Therefore, the measured wind speed and wind direction play a non-negligible role in grasping the growth status of crops.

Rainfall: The type of rainfall in many parts of the world can change due to global warming. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the average annual rainfall in the world will increase in the 21st century, although there will be some reduction in rainfall in some areas. In areas where rainfall is expected to increase, it is likely that there will be large changes in annual rainfall. Water shortages during the flowering, pollination and grain filling stages are recognized to result in reduced production of corn, soybeans, wheat and sorghum. Changes in the amount of rainfall and the increase in the total loss of evapotranspiration from soil moisture will further lead to the shortage of water resources in some parts of the world and affect their water quality. Access to water resources is a major factor in ensuring food security. Agricultural water accounts for almost 70% of global water use, and this proportion is as high as 95% in Asia and West Asia. Therefore, the tension in water resources will seriously affect agriculture. Changes in rainfall also affect soil moisture. Recent analysis of 15 global climate models shows that all climate models give some of the same predictions. In the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, the Mediterranean, Australia, and southern Africa, the global warming will increase the evaporation of soil moisture and dry the soil. Drying occurs in many areas of the Amazon basin and West Africa in June, July and August. Soil desiccation occurs in the Asian monsoon region in December, January and February. However, when predicting soil wetness scenarios, the 15 model analyses only reached very unanimous conclusions during the non-planting seasons in the mid-latitude and high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The study concludes that global warming may cause soils to lack moisture, leading to an overall reduction in global food production potential. Changes in rainfall will also have an impact on river flow and irrigation water use. In areas that depend on melting snow for agricultural irrigation, such as in many parts of South Asia, the reduction in glaciers and snowfall may have serious consequences for water supply in summer. Climate change will further aggravate the frequency and intensity of drought in Central Asia, North and Southern Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean region and Australia. Increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather phenomena (including droughts, storms, and floods) can lead to damage to crops and land degradation.

In short, there are many factors that affect agriculture. During the cultivation of specific crops, we should adopt different measures according to different crops to increase the yield of crops. As the so-called different species, we should control different influencing factors for different crops.

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